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自編的題目「The uncanny valley

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英文自編題目-- 閱讀測驗01

難度參考:指考

 

 

1 4 題為題組

 The uncanny valley is a hypothesis regarding the field of robotics. The theory holds that when robots or other copies of humans look and act almost like actual humans, it causes a response of revulsion among observers.

 

The term was coined by a roboticist Masahiro Mori. Mori states that as a robot is made ever-increasingly humanlike in its appearance and motion, the emotional response from an individual to the robot will become increasingly positive and empathic, until a point is reached beyond which the response quickly becomes that of strong disgust. However, as the appearance and motion continue to become less distinguishable from an individual, the emotional response becomes positive once more and approaches human-to-human empathy levels.

 

The truth of the uncanny valley was examined with one recent study. A group of five monkeys were shown three images: two different 3D monkey faces (realistic, unrealistic), and a real photo of a monkey's face. The time of eye-gazing was used as a proxy for the result. Since the realistic 3D monkey face had been looked for lesser time than the others, this indicated that the monkey participants found the realistic 3D face aversive, or otherwise preferred the other two images.

 

The concept of the uncanny valley is taken seriously by the film industry due to negative audience reactions to the animated humans. To avoid the uncanny valley as much as possible, animators will take some measures. For example, design elements should match in human realism. That is to say, if an animated character looks more human than its movement, this gives a negative impression. Animated humans may look uncanny when human and nonhuman elements are mixed, which are what animators must subside so that they can ensure most of the audience a pleasant experience of going to the movies.

 

1.  According to Mori, when you see a robot continually becoming more like a human, how may your emotion change?

(A)  You may feel more and more comfortable from start to end.

(B)  You may feel comfortable at first, and feel unpleasant at one point, but later come back to the comfortable status.

(C)  You may feel unpleasant for a long time, but feel comfortable when the robot becomes totally the same as a human.

(D)  You may feel unpleasant at first, but feel more and more comfortable after you get used to its transforming.

 

2.  The time of eye-gazing was used as a proxy by the researchers to ______

(A)  select suitable monkeys to be in the experiment.

(B)  help monkeys practice staring at things for a long time.

(C)  judge whether the monkeys like the photos or not.

(D) avoid experimental errors in the experiment.

 

3.  What is the main idea of the 4th paragraph?

 

(A)  The opportunity of animated humans’ appearing in the movie have now decreased because of the audience lacking interests in them.

(B)  The pessimistic audience experiences the severe uncanny valley problem when seeing animated humans.

(C)  Audience feels pleasant when seeing movies that seriously discuss the problem of the uncanny valley.  

(D)  To solve the uncanny valley problem, animators try their best to balance animated humans’ actions and looks.

 

 

4.  What can be inferred from this passage?

 

(A)  Not only human beings, but the other animals may experience the uncanny valley.

(B)  You will experience the uncanny valley when you see a man in a costume of robots.

(C)  We feel more empathy when we see robots than we see humans.

(D)  Now animators can entirely avoid the uncanny valley problem in the animation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

參考答案: 1~4  BCDA

 

參考翻譯:

 

   恐怖谷理論是一個關於機械人的假設。 這項假設的論點說明當觀察者看到機械人或是其他有著模仿人類外表的東西,在外觀或是動作上極度與人類相似時,所產生的一種厭惡的反應。

   這個術語是一位機械專家森政宏所發明。他指出,當一個機械人在外表和動作上越來越像人類時,觀察者對於機器人的正面情緒以及移情作用會不斷增加,直到某一個程度時,觀察者反應會突然變得極之反感。然而,當其外觀和動作變得與人類越來越難分辨時,觀察者對其情感亦再次變回正面,且貼近人類與人類之間的移情作用。

   恐怖谷理論的真實性在一次最新研究中被檢視。研究中給五隻猴子三種不同的圖片:兩張不同3D建模的猴子臉圖案(一張做的很真,一張不是)、以及一張真實猴子臉的圖片。而牠們眼睛注視的時間被視為整項結果的判定標準。由於做的很真的3D建模猴子臉圖被注視的時間比其他兩張圖片還短,這顯示了,參與實驗的猴子對做的很真的3D建模猴子臉圖厭惡,或是牠們比較喜歡另外兩張圖。

   電影產業正經地看待恐怖谷理論,因為它會造成民眾對動畫人類的反感。為了盡可能避免恐怖谷的發生,動畫師會採取一些方式。例如,設計出來的人物需包含真人的特徵。換句話說,當一個動畫角色外觀上比他的行為更像人類時,就會給予反感。同時混了真人和非人特徵的動畫人類可能看起來很怪異,而這是動畫師必須避開的。這樣才能確保大部分的觀眾能有一個愉快的看電影經驗。

  

1. 根據森政宏所說,當你看到一個機械人變得越來越像真人時,你的心情會如何轉變?

(A)   從頭到尾你都會感到越來越舒適。

(B)   你一開始會感到舒適,然後突然一瞬間趕到反感,但接著又回到舒適的狀態。

(C)   你會感到反感很長一段時間,但是在機械人完全變成真人時,感到舒適。

(D)   你一開始會感到反感,但在習慣他的變形後就會越來越舒適。

 

2. 牠們眼睛注視的時間被視為判定標準是用來

(A)   挑選合適的猴子來進行實驗。

(B)   幫助猴子練習長時間注視某物。

(C)   判斷猴子是否喜歡那些照片。

(D)   避免實驗過程中的實驗誤差。

 

3.  第四段的大意為何?

(A)   電影中動畫人類的出現機會如今已減少了,因為觀眾對他們缺乏興趣。

(B)   消極的觀眾在看到動畫人類時會有很嚴重的恐怖谷現象發生。

(C)   觀眾在觀看認真探討恐怖谷的電影裡得到愉悅。

(D)   為了解決恐怖谷的問題,動畫師設法平衡動畫人類的動作和外觀。

 

4.  我們可以從文中推得什麼?

(A)   不只人類,其他動物也可能會有恐怖谷現象發生。

(B)   當你看到有人穿著機器人裝扮時,你會有恐怖谷現象發生。

(C)   我們看到機械人比看到真人時會有更多移情作用。

(D)   現在動畫師已能夠完全避免動畫中恐怖谷現象的發生。

 

 

 參考解析:(括號內為解題思路過程)

1.(考細節描述,藉由主題句,可知答案在第二段,所以就去把第二段看完,找出關鍵字)

文章第二段中間處:

Mori states … a robot is made ever-increasingly humanlike … will become increasingly positive and empathic, until a point … quickly becomes that of strong disgust. However, as… continue to become less distinguishable … the emotional response becomes positive once more

他指出,當一個機械人在外表和動作上越來越像人類時...正面情緒以及移情作用會不斷增加,直到某一個程度時....突然變得極之反感。然而,當其外觀和動作變得與人類越來越難分辨時...對其情感亦再次變回正面...

由「positive→disgust→positive」的過程可知答案為(B)。同學可以注意文章用的是positive和disgust ,而選項則是使用comfortable和unpleasant(同意字代換)。

 

2.(考字詞「解釋」→找包括那個字在內的句子,以及其前後2個句子,總共3個句子,答案就會出來)

文章第三段:

A group of five monkeys were shown three images… The time of eye-gazing was used as a proxy for the result. Since … had been looked for lesser time than the others, this indicated that … found … aversive, or otherwise preferred ….

 

研究中給五隻猴子三種不同的圖片...牠們眼睛注視的時間被視為整項結果的判定標準...被注視的時間比其他兩張圖片還短,這顯示了...對...厭惡,或是...比較喜歡另外兩張圖。

 

從後面「for lesser time」可知時間被用來作為三張圖的比較,再加上後方提到aversive(討厭)、prefer(喜歡),可以得知time被拿來比較何被喜歡、何被討厭。

(A) 此實驗目的不是要找到合適的猴子。

(B)文章並未提到「練習」等字,此實驗也不是要幫助猴子。

(D)文章並未提到有關誤差兩字的敘述。

故答案選(C)

※ proxy  nc.代理人 (非七千字)※

 

3.(考文章大意,題目已好心說明是第四段,故看完第四段首尾句即可作答)

文章第四段首尾句:

The concept of the uncanny valley is taken seriously by the film industry due to negative audience reactions to the animated humans … Animated humans may look uncanny when human and nonhuman elements are mixed, which are what animators must subside so that they can ensure most of the audience a pleasant experience of going to the movies.

 

電影產業正經地看待恐怖谷理論,因為它會造成民眾對動畫人類的反感...同時混了真人和非人特徵的動畫人類可能看起來很怪異,而這是動畫師必須避開的。這樣才能確保大部分的觀眾能有一個愉快的看電影經驗。

 

如果覺得答案還不夠清楚,中間還有:

To avoid the uncanny valley as much as possible, animators will … That is to say, if an animated character looks more human than its movement, this gives a negative impression.

為了盡可能避免恐怖谷的發生....當一個動畫角色外觀上比他的行為更像人類時,就會給予反感

(A) 有些同學會以為文章的negative表示觀眾對動畫人物已經沒感興趣。但這一樣是過度解釋文章,且這個選項有些以偏蓋全,且之後的句子仍有敘述到說動畫人類仍舊出現,然後要設法改善恐怖谷現象等敘述,故不合。

(B) 選這個選項同學應是誤解了negative這裡的用法,他並不是指觀眾個性消極,而是指對動畫人類有消極反應。

(C) 本文章未提到。

故答案選(D)

 

4. (考文章推論,需看完全部文章,但是因為主題句都看過了,此時看整篇文章的速度可以加快)

      (A)→文章第三段,拿猴子做恐怖谷實驗,且最後是成功的,表示除了人類之外,猴子(其他動物)也會有恐怖谷現象發生。這是合理的推測,還不算過度解釋文章。如果題目是說「狗也  會有恐怖谷現象發生」,那就算是過度解釋了。我們可以確定猴子會有,而猴子(小範圍)屬於動物(大範圍)。大範圍的類推是可以的,但是小範圍的類推就會是過度解釋文章。

      (B)→ 文章中未提到。文章一再提的是「對貌似人類的機械人的反應」。故錯。

      (C)→ 文章中未提到。文章第二段只提到說,最後會貼近人與人的移情作用。

 

However, … the emotional response becomes positive once more and approaches human-to-human empathy levels. 故錯。

 然而,...觀察者對其情感亦再次變回正面,且貼近人類與人類之間的移情作用。


      (D)→ 文章第四段,雖未明講,但是從紅線處可以推得尚未完全避免掉。這也是合理推測。因為作者不是使用「entirely」、「all audience」等字眼。故這個選項也錯。

 

… To avoid the uncanny valley as much as possible, animators will take some measures…so that they can ensure most of the audience a pleasant experience of going to the movies.

           為了盡可能避免恐怖谷的發生,動畫師會採取一些方式...這樣才能確保大部分的觀眾能有一個愉快的看電影經驗。     

 

       故答案選(A)。

 

 

 

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請參考

http://stu60912.pixnet.net/blog/post/11225158

 

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這個題組出的很痛苦XD

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